Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Image Map

Black History Month Resources: Home

This guide contains resources that explore the contributions and lives of Black and African American persons.

Black History Month - McDonald Library

2022 Black History Month
Black Health and Wellness
- Xavier University Library
                      

Every February, the U.S. honors the contributions and sacrifices of African Americans who have helped shape the nation. Black History Month celebrates the rich cultural heritage, triumphs and adversities that are an indelible part of our country's history.

This year's theme, Black Health and Wellness, pays homage to medical scholars and health care providers. The theme is especially timely as we enter the third year of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disproportionately affected minority communities and placed unique burdens on Black health care professionals.

 

Relevant Guides Created by the University Community

Jesuitresource.org - Black History Month and Racial Justice and Reconciliation

MLA Resources

Black Health and Wellness Resources

The Public Health Nurses of Jim Crow Florida

Highlighting the long unacknowledged role of a group of pioneering professional women, The Public Health Nurses of Jim Crow Florida tells the story of healthcare workers who battled racism in a state where white supremacy formed the bedrock of society. They aimed to serve those people out of reach of modern medical care. In the era of Jim Crow discrimination, fear of mistreatment in medical facilities-along with the inability to miss work for medical reasons-meant that many African Americans in rural communities rarely saw doctors. Christine Ardalan shows how Florida's public health nurses took up the charge, traveling into the Florida scrub to deliver health improvement information to the homes of black and white residents, many of whom were illiterate. Drawing on a rich body of public health and nursing records, Ardalan draws attention to the innovative ways nurses bridged the gap between these communities and government policies that addressed threats of infection and high rates of infant and maternal mortality. From the progressive era to the civil rights movement, Florida's public health nurses worked to overcome the constraints of segregation. Their story is echoed by the experiences of today's community health nurses, who are keenly aware that maintaining healthy lives for all Americans requires tackling the nation's deep-rooted cultural challenges.

The Impacts of Racism and Bias on Black People Pursuing Careers in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Despite the changing demographics of the nation and a growing appreciation for diversity and inclusion as drivers of excellence in science, engineering, and medicine, Black Americans are severely underrepresented in these fields. Racism and bias are significant reasons for this disparity, with detrimental implications on individuals, health care organizations, and the nation as a whole. The Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine was launched at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2019 to identify key levers, drivers, and disruptors in government, industry, health care, and higher education where actions can have the most impact on increasing the participation of Black men and Black women in science, medicine, and engineering. On April 16, 2020, the Roundtable convened a workshop to explore the context for their work; to surface key issues and questions that the Roundtable should address in its initial phase; and to reach key stakeholders and constituents. This proceedings provides a record of the workshop.

African Americans' Health Care Practices, Perspectives, and Needs

Healthcare of the highest quality is what one should expect to receive in the United States. Inequalities in the distribution and utilization of American health services will result in disastrous consequences for the nation as a whole. African Americans' Health Care Practices, Perspectives, and Needs examines the impact of healthcare discrimination upon the African-American community. Healthcare specialists and providers, as well as ethnic studies scholars will benefit from this telling book.

Patient-Centered Clinical Care for African Americans

This title is an easy-to-read guide outlining specific differences in communication, clinical therapies, medications, protocols, and other critical approaches to the care of African Americans.  The book discusses a wide range of disorders impacting African Americans and takes a comprehensive and evidence-based approach to the clinical support of providers that see African American patients.   Recording the worst medical outcomes of any racial/ethnic group in America, African Americans have the highest mortality, longest hospital length of stay, worst compliance with medications and referrals, and the lowest trust of the healthcare system. Indeed, there are countless well-designed studies that validate verified differences in the clinical care of a number of pervasive diseases in African Americans, including hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, obesity, cancer, and more.  Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the existence of health disparities among racial/ethnic groups, the overall outcomes for African Americans are still the most shocking.  From high infant mortality to death by almost any cause, African Americans have the worst data of any other racial or ethnic group.  Patient-Centered Clinical Care for African Americans, a highly practical and first-of-its-kind title, illuminates these alarming issues and represents a major contribution to the clinical literature. It will be of significant interest to all physicians, clinicians, and allied health personnel.

Inequality, Crime, and Health among African American Males

Imprisonment, homicide, non-lethal assault and other crime, chronic and infectious disease, substance abuse, suicide, and accidents all contribute to the much wider gap in the community-level sex ratios found among African Americans compared to those observed found among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States. This wide array of causes and correlates of African American male mortality, disability, and confinement suggests an area in need of interdisciplinary inquiry that examines the intersection between public health and public safety.   Health analysts and social scientists across many disciplines have studied the disproportionately high levels of disease, disability, premature death, and exposure to the criminal justice system in African Americans communities extensively. To date, there has been little overlap between the diverse literatures even though the very same factors leading to crime and punishment among African American males often contribute to their poor physical and mental health profiles. This book addresses this omission by including chapters exploring the multifaceted dimensions of the varied disadvantages faced by African American males.  Authors draw from an array of theoretical and methodological frameworks to illustrate how poor outcomes and sharp disparities among individuals and communities can be linked to the interplay of multiple factors operating at multiple levels. This volume is a useful resource for serious scholars and makers of public policy who seek to understand the causal interplay among economic and racial inequality, gender, crime, punishment, and health outcomes among all African Americans.

Reclaiming Our Health

"An interactive and empowering book."—Bet.com

Heart, Brain and Mental Health Disparities for LGBTQ People of Color

This timely edited collection presents a holistic and biopsychosocial analysis of LGBTQ People of Color well-being, focused on heart, brain, and mental health, and employs a unique incorporation of minority stress, intersectionality, and allostatic load frameworks. Bringing together established and emerging academics, its authors present a critical analysis of the latest research that encompasses the study of both risk and resilience factors in LGBTQ People of Color health. Across the book, they highlight the precise nature of the behavioral health disparities experienced by these communities, but further, they reveal the unique roles of intersectional discrimination and structural stigma as mechanisms for these disparities. With chapters also dedicated to federal policies and public health, this multidisciplinary work marks a seminal contribution that will pave the way for further advances in research, theory, and practice. It offers a valuable resource on an understudied population that will appeal to researchers, practitioners and policy makers in the fields of health psychology, public health, epidemiology, sociology, health sciences and medicine.

Black Fatigue

This is the first book to define and explore Black fatigue, the intergenerational impact of systemic racism on the physical and psychological health of Black people--and explain why and how society needs to collectively do more to combat its pernicious effects. Black people, young and old, are fatigued, says award-winning diversity and inclusion leader Mary-Frances Winters. It is physically, mentally, and emotionally draining to continue to experience inequities and even atrocities, day after day, when justice is a God-given and legislated right. And it is exhausting to have to constantly explain this to white people, even--and especially--well-meaning white people, who fall prey to white fragility and too often are unwittingly complicit in upholding the very systems they say they want dismantled. This book, designed to illuminate the myriad dire consequences of "living while Black," came at the urging of Winters's Black friends and colleagues. Winters describes how in every aspect of life--from economics to education, work, criminal justice, and, very importantly, health outcomes--for the most part, the trajectory for Black people is not improving. It is paradoxical that, with all the attention focused over the last fifty years on social justice and diversity and inclusion, little progress has been made in actualizing the vision of an equitable society. Black people are quite literally sick and tired of being sick and tired. Winters writes that "my hope for this book is that it will provide a comprehensive summary of the consequences of Black fatigue, and awaken activism in those who care about equity and justice--those who care that intergenerational fatigue is tearing at the very core of a whole race of people who are simply asking for what they deserve."   Reading group discussion guide available.

Racism and Psychiatry

This book addresses the unique sociocultural and historical systems of oppression that have alienated African-American and other racial minority patients within the mental healthcare system.  This text aims to build a novel didactic curriculum addressing racism, justice, and community mental health as these issues intersect clinical practice.  Unlike any other resource, this guide moves beyond an exploration of the problem of racism and its detrimental effects, to a practical, solution-oriented discussion of how to understand and approach the mental health consequences with a lens and sensitivity for contemporary justice issues. After establishing the historical context of racism within organized medicine and psychiatry, the text boldly examines contemporary issues, including clinical biases in diagnosis and treatment, addiction and incarceration, and perspectives on providing psychotherapy to racial minorities.  The text concludes with chapters covering training and medical education within this sphere, approaches to supporting patients coping with racism and discrimination, and strategies for changing institutional practices in mental healthcare.   Written by thought leaders in the field, Racism and Psychiatry is the only current tool for psychiatrists, psychologists, administrators, educators, medical students, social workers, and all clinicians working to treat patients dealing with issues of racism at the point of mental healthcare. 

Racism and Human Development

This book addresses the lifelong effects of racism, covering its social, psychological, family, community and health impacts. The studies brought together in this contributed volume discuss experiences of discrimination, prejudice and exclusion experienced by children, young people, adults, older adults and their families; the processes of socialization, emotional regulation and construction of ethnic-racial identities; and stress-producing events associated with racism. This volume intends to contribute to a growing international effort to develop an antiracist agenda in developmental psychology by showcasing studies developed mainly in Brazil, the country with the largest black population in the world outside of Africa. Racism as an ideology that structures social relations and attributes superiority to one race over the others have developed in different ways in different countries. As a response to the 2020 social and health crisis, some North American developmental psychologists have started promoting initiatives to openly challenge racism. This book intends to contribute to this movement by bringing together studies conducted mainly in Brazil, but also in Germany and Norway, that adopt a racially informed approach to different topics in developmental psychology. Racism and Human Development intends to be an inspiration to students, scholars and practitioners who are seeking tools and examples of studies of race and racism from a developmental perspective. The establishment of an antiracist agenda in developmental psychology will never be possible without a commitment to the study of race as an indispensable social marker of human ontogeny in any society. This book is another step towards racial equity and towards a developmental science that leaves no one behind.

Black Mental Health

Novel in its approach and unique in its scope, Black Mental Health: Patients, Providers, and Systems examines the role of African Americans within American psychiatric health care from distinct but interconnected perspectives. The experiences of both black patients and the black mental health professionals who serve them are analyzed against the backdrop of the cultural, societal, and professional forces that have shaped their place in this specialized health care arena. The volume opens with the singular, first-person accounts of five senior black psychiatrists--including Dr. Altha J. Stewart, president of the American Psychiatric Association--who describe their individual journeys to the top of their field, not shying away from discussing the racism and discrimination that have challenged their paths to leadership. The book's second part focuses on the complexities of and opportunities for delivering mental health care to various subsets of the African American population, including children, women, elderly patients, and LGBTQ individuals. System design strategies, biological therapies, and church-based mental health promotion initiatives are all considered as methods for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in access to effective treatment. Part III examines the training of black mental health professionals and their representation in psychiatry, particularly in the face of discrimination and implicit bias. A chapter on historically black colleges and universities discusses the importance of their role in the delivery of psychiatric services and research development for African Americans. The fourth part builds on this discussion, addressing research that is relevant to the care of the black population. A concluding chapter highlights the key themes that emerged from each of the previous four parts, providing a holistic view of the place of black patients and providers in American psychiatry. With its blend of scholarship, clinical insight, and training analysis, Black Mental Health is compulsory reading both for trainees--as care delivery to minority groups is of ever greater importance--and practicing clinicians, who will glean useful information from the chapters on research advances and treatment modalities. Additionally, policy makers, educators, and historians, among others, will gain a better understanding of the challenges and necessity of developing integrated approaches to the care of nondominant groups.

Flatlining

What happens to black health care professionals in the new economy, where work is insecure and organizational resources are scarce? In Flatlining, Adia Harvey Wingfield exposes how hospitals, clinics, and other institutions participate in "racial outsourcing," relying heavily on black doctors, nurses, technicians, and physician assistants to do "equity work"--extra labor that makes organizations and their services more accessible to communities of color. Wingfield argues that as these organizations become more profit driven, they come to depend on black health care professionals to perform equity work to serve increasingly diverse constituencies. Yet black workers often do this labor without recognition, compensation, or support. Operating at the intersection of work, race, gender, and class, Wingfield makes plain the challenges that black employees must overcome and reveals the complicated issues of inequality in today's workplaces and communities.

Inequality, Crime, and Health among African American Males

Imprisonment, homicide, non-lethal assault and other crime, chronic and infectious disease, substance abuse, suicide, and accidents all contribute to the much wider gap in the community-level sex ratios found among African Americans compared to those observed found among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States. This wide array of causes and correlates of African American male mortality, disability, and confinement suggests an area in need of interdisciplinary inquiry that examines the intersection between public health and public safety.   Health analysts and social scientists across many disciplines have studied the disproportionately high levels of disease, disability, premature death, and exposure to the criminal justice system in African Americans communities extensively. To date, there has been little overlap between the diverse literatures even though the very same factors leading to crime and punishment among African American males often contribute to their poor physical and mental health profiles. This book addresses this omission by including chapters exploring the multifaceted dimensions of the varied disadvantages faced by African American males.  Authors draw from an array of theoretical and methodological frameworks to illustrate how poor outcomes and sharp disparities among individuals and communities can be linked to the interplay of multiple factors operating at multiple levels. This volume is a useful resource for serious scholars and makers of public policy who seek to understand the causal interplay among economic and racial inequality, gender, crime, punishment, and health outcomes among all African Americans.

Chocolate Cities

From Central District Seattle to Harlem to Holly Springs, Black people have built a dynamic network of cities and towns where Black culture is maintained, created, and defended. But imagine--what if current maps of Black life are wrong? Chocolate Cities offers a refreshing and persuasive rendering of the United States--a "Black map" that more accurately reflects the lived experiences and the future of Black life in America. Drawing on film, fiction, music, and oral history, Marcus Anthony Hunter and Zandria F. Robinson trace the Black American experience of race, place, and liberation, mapping it from Emancipation to now. As the United States moves toward a majority minority society, Chocolate Cities provides a provocative, broad, and necessary assessment of how racial and ethnic minorities make and change America's social, economic, and political landscape.

Heart, Brain and Mental Health Disparities for LGBTQ People of Color

This timely edited collection presents a holistic and biopsychosocial analysis of LGBTQ People of Color well-being, focused on heart, brain, and mental health, and employs a unique incorporation of minority stress, intersectionality, and allostatic load frameworks. Bringing together established and emerging academics, its authors present a critical analysis of the latest research that encompasses the study of both risk and resilience factors in LGBTQ People of Color health. Across the book, they highlight the precise nature of the behavioral health disparities experienced by these communities, but further, they reveal the unique roles of intersectional discrimination and structural stigma as mechanisms for these disparities. With chapters also dedicated to federal policies and public health, this multidisciplinary work marks a seminal contribution that will pave the way for further advances in research, theory, and practice. It offers a valuable resource on an understudied population that will appeal to researchers, practitioners and policy makers in the fields of health psychology, public health, epidemiology, sociology, health sciences and medicine.

E-Books

The Warmth of Other Suns

by Isabel Wilkerson

White Fragility

by Robin Diangelo

White Flight

by Kevin Kruse

Racism Without Racists

by Eduardo Bonilla-Silva

White Rage

by Carol Anderson

How to Be an Antiracist

by Ibram X. Kendi

White by Law

by Ian Haney-Lopez

The New Jim Crow

by Michelle Alexander

Me and White Supremacy

by Layla F. Saad

American Lynching

by Ashraf Rushdy

Raising White Kids

by Jennifer Harvery

The Fire Next Time

by James Baldwin

Fatal Invention

by Dorothy Roberts

Between the World and Me

by Ta-Nehisi Coates

Dog Whistle Politics

by Ian Haney Lopez

Black Feminist Thought

by Patricia Hill Collins

Bellarmine Chapel Resources

Resources for Racial Justice
compiled by the Bellarmine Dismantling Racism Team

The Link above provides a selection of resources that members of the Dismantling Racism Team recommend as a starting point for those interested in understanding and responding to racism, white supremacy, and racial inequities today.  We hope they will open the door to or further support you in your journey towards active anti-racism and transformative change.   

We  includes some church statements and background information on racism, then list organizations, films, and and written resources, including the list we read as a parish community through our book group series, 2016-2019.  

Quick Links: Organizations | Films |Books | TedTalks | On Being | Articles

Films and Videos

Xavier All For One - Diversity

At Xavier University, we come from all different walks of life. No two of us are exactly the same and that’s where we find our strength. Being Musketeers makes us All for One. Embracing our differences to bring us together, means we are all one.